Simon J. Rhodes, Ph.D.

Dean, School of Science
Professor, Biology

Education/ Training:
Ph.D. Purdue University, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1991)
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Diego, Molecular Medicine (1994)

Developmental Pathophysiology of Vertebrate Neuroendocrine Organs.

My research investigates how key regulatory genes direct the determination and differentiation of individual (neuro)endocrine cell lineages of the brain and pituitary during vertebrate development. For example, the anterior pituitary gland presents a valuable model system to pursue these studies. The mature gland contains five discrete cell types that are each characterized by the secretion of specific polypeptide hormones critical for growth, sexual function, lactation, thyroid activity, adrenal physiology and homeostasis. We use both molecular and transgenic/knock-in/knock-out animal approaches to examine the roles of several classes of transcription factors in specification of pituitary cell phenotypes. Our research goals include:
1. Characterization of the basic biology/biochemistry of endocrine transcription factors. 
2. Investigation of the molecular nature of human pituitary diseases, such as severe hormone deficiency disorders in children, in collaboration with faculty at Riley Children's Hospital; Children's Hospital Leipzig; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children/University College London, and elsewhere.

Recent Publications:

Gregory, L.C., Humayun, K.N., Turton, J.P.G., McCabe, M.J., Martinez-Barbera, J.-P., Rhodes, S.J., and Dattani, M.T. (2015). Novel lethal form of congenital hypopituitarism associated with the first recessive LHX4 mutation J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2015 Jun;100(6):2158-64. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4484. Epub 2015 Apr 14. PMID: 25871839.

Gilbert, B.L., Banks, J., Houser, J.W.H., Rhodes, S.J., and Lees, N.D. (2014). Persistence, degree completion, and student development in an experiential learning program. Journal of College Student Development 55/7: 707-713.

Gahete, M.D., Duran-Prado, M., Delgado-Niebla, E., Garrido, J.J., Rhodes, S.J., García-Navarro, S., Gracia-Navarro, F., Malagon, M.M., Luque, R.M., and Castaño, J.P. (2014). Porcine sst1 can physically interact with other somatostatin receptors and its expression is regulated by metabolic/inflammatory sensors. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2014 Mar 1;306(5):E483-93. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00587.2013. Epub 2013 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 24368669.

Malik, R.E. and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). The role of DNA methylation in regulation of the murine Lhx3 gene. Gene. 2013 Oct 31. doi:pii: S0378-1119(13)01454-6. 10.1016/j.gene.2013.10.045. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24183897. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3870101.

Park, S., Mullen, R.D., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). Cell-specific actions of a human LHX3 gene enhancer during pituitary and spinal cord development. Mol. Endocrinol. 2013 Dec;27(12):2013-27. doi: 10.1210/me.2013-1161. Epub 2013 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 24100213. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3857196.

Hunter, C.S., Malik, R.E., Witzmann, F., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). LHX3 interacts with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase complex subunits LANP and TAF-1β to modulate pituitary gene regulation. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 4;8(7):e68898. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068898. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23861948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3701669.

Prince, K.L., Colvin, S.C., Park, S., Lai, X., Witzmann, F.A., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). Developmental analysis and influence of genetic background on the Lhx3 W227ter mouse model of combined pituitary hormone deficiency disease. Endocrinology. 2013. Feb;154(2):738-48. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1790. Epub 2013 Jan 3. PubMed PMID:23288907; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3548188.

Yusuf, D., Rhodes SJ, Wasserman, W.W. et al. (2012). The transcription factor encyclopedia. Genome Biol. 2012;13(3):R24. doi: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-3-r24. PubMed PMID: 22458515; PMCID: PMC3439975.

Dong, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, S., Bai, Y., Chen, H., Sun, X., Yong, W., Li, W., Colvin, S.C., Rhodes, S.J., Shou, W., and Zhang, Z.Y. (2012). Phosphatase of regenerating liver 2 (PRL2) is essential for placental development by down-regulating PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10) and activating Akt protein. J. Biol. Chem. 2012 Sep 14;287(38):32172-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.393462. Epub 2012 Jul. PMID: 22791713; PMCID: PMC3442547. *Journal of Biological Chemistry "Paper of the Week".

Mullen, R.D., Park, S., and Rhodes, S.J. (2012). A distal modular enhancer complex acts to control pituitary- and nervous system-specific expression of the LHX3 regulatory gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 2012 Feb;26(2):308-19. Epub 2011 Dec 22. PMID: 22194342; PMCID: PMC3275162.

Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S., Hiedl, S., Roeb, J., Lohse, P., Malik, R.E., Park, S., Durán-Prado, M., and Rhodes, S.J. (2012). A recessive mutation resulting in a disabling amino acid substitution (T194R) in the LHX3 homeodomain causes combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;77(1):41-51. doi: 10.1159/000335929. Epub 2012 Jan 26. PubMed PMID: 22286346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3355643.Prince, K.E., Walvoord, E.C., and Rhodes, S.J. (2011). The role of homeodomain transcription factors in heritable pituitary disease. Nature Rev. Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 26;7(12):727-37. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.119. PMID: 21788968. PMC Journal - In Process.

Colvin, S.C., Malik R.E., Showalter, A.D., Sloop, K.W., and Rhodes, S.J. (2011). A model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 2011 Jan 4;108(1):173-8. Epub 2010 Dec 13. PMID: 21149718; PMCID: PMC3017168. *featured article.

Gibau-Sanchez, G., Foertsch, F., Blum, J.S., Brutkiewicz, R.R., Queener, S.F., Roman, A., Rhodes, S.J., Sturek, M.S., Wilkes, D.S., and Broxmeyer, H.E. (2010). Diversifying biomedical training: a synergistic intervention. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 16/3, 215-235. (DOI: 10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.v16.i3.20). 

Walvoord, E., Vannerson, J., and Rhodes, S.J. (2010). Precocious pubic hair development: a team based learning review of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and puberty. MedEdPORTAL.

Gilbert, B.L., Lees, N.D., and Rhodes, S.J. (2009). The Life-Health Sciences Internships Program: research and professional experience internships as an undergraduate retention tool. In R. Hayes (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th National Symposium on Student Retention, 2009, Buffalo. (pp. 404-410). Norman, OK, The University of Oklahoma.

Sehgal, R., Sheibani, N., Rhodes, S.J., and Belecky Adams, T.L. (2009). BMP7 and SHH regulate Pax2 in mouse retinal astrocytes by relieving TLX repression. Dev Biol. Dev Biol. 2009 Aug 15;332(2):429-43. Epub 2009 Jun 6. PMID: 19505455; PMCID: PMC2917894.

Colvin, S.C., Mullen, R.D., Pfäffle, R.W., and Rhodes, S.J. (2009). LHX3 and LHX4 transcription factors in pituitary development and disease. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, Suppl 2:283-90.

Kelberman, D., Turton, J., Woods, K.S., Mehta, A., Al-Kawari, M., Greening, J., Swift, P., Otonkoski, T., Bitner-Glindicz, M., Rhodes, S.J., and Dattani, M.T. (2009). Molecular analysis of novel PROP1 mutations associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology 70(1): 96-103. PubMed PMID: 19128366. PMC Journal - In Process.

Pfäffle, R.W., Hunter, C.S., Savage, J.J., Duran-Prado, M., Mullen, R.D., Neeb, Z.P., Eiholzer, U., Hesse, V., Haddad, N.G., Stobbe, H.M., Blum, W.F., Weigel, J.F., and Rhodes, S.J. (2008). Three novel missense mutations within the LHX4 gene are associated with variable pituitary hormone deficiencies. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93(3): 1062-71. Epub 2007 Dec 11. PMCID2266965.

Stark Neurosciences Research Institute | Neuroscience Research Building | 320 West 15th Street | Indianapolis, IN 46202 | Phone: (317) 278-5848 | FAX: (317) 231-0203